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The dog still has a large, untapped potential as a working animal. My initial study focus was chemical engineering, but my fascination with the behavior of animals led me to chemical behavioral ecology as my field of expertise. For twenty years I have conducted research and taught on the odor-based communication of many different species of mammals, including the beaver, brown bear, yellow-bellied marmot and European badger. One of the main focuses has been olfaction in animal behavior ; how animals use scent to communicate with one another.

I have published more than scientific papers on this and other related topics. My background research provided freezers full of scent samples from various mammals, which I used for my research on dogs.

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Dogs have been domesticated for thousands of years but in the last years they have been trained to work in a variety of specialized fields. This is largely thanks to their noses. Dogs protect human life, both by serving to locate dangerous or missing people and detecting illegal substances and bombs. Dogs can also be used for medical purposes: detecting diabetes and the early stages of some cancer types and sniffing out invasive and rare animals and plants.

Facts About Reindeer | Live Science

The book also explains the importance of scent, including why dogs aim for the groin when meeting a stranger, and why felons who feel tempted to flee through water should refrain from doing so. Dogs are fantastic, not only for their olfactory capabilities but also the unique relationship we have with them! It is said that a dog who has lost its sense of smell is no longer a dog. When a dog sniffs, the air follows a side route and enters the olfactory recess, which contains genes for olfactory receptors, and olfactory receptor cells that absorb odorants. The olfactory mucous membrane is spread across a labyrinth of bone structures called nasal turbinates and is covered with millions of tiny olfactory hairs which capture odorants.

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When gaseous odorants come into contact with the olfactory membrane, they are dissolved in the layer of mucus. Odorants that are easily dissolved are released in the front part of the olfactory recess, while moderately soluble and insoluble odorants are distributed more evenly across the entire olfactory recess.

How the odorants are deposited therefore plays a role in compound recognition. After the odorants have passed the olfactory receptors, they are transformed into an electrical signal that travels via the olfactory nerve to the olfactory center of the brain where the information is interpreted. Many of us have heard that the dog has a much better sense of smell than human beings. The section of a dog's brain related to processing smells is almost seven times larger than ours. This enables the dog to sniff faint odors without disturbing or destroying them.

Dogs have a wing-like flap in each nostril that determines the direction of the airstream in and out of the nose. When the dog inhales, an opening above and beside this flap allows air to pass through. When the dog exhales, this opening closes and the air comes out below and beside this flap through another opening, enabling the dog to increase its collection of odors. As a result, the warm air that is exhaled flows backward and away from the odor being sniffed, preventing them from mixing.

Dogs also use their nostrils differently according to the nature of the scent. Once they had become familiar with the smell, the left side of the brain took over. When they sniffed sweat odors from veterinarians who worked at a kennel, they used only the right nostril. In short, the left and right sides of the brain take in different kinds of information. The right side of the brain is associated with intense feelings, such as aggression , flight behavior, and fear. For most dogs, a veterinarian is a frightening person.

Red-nosed reindeer

The book is written for dog enthusiasts, dog researchers, and people who wish to broaden their knowledge about dogs in general. I especially hope that it will benefit all people who wish to make dog training, especially in specific fields, aware of what has been done and what can be done.

I hope dog trainers, SAR people, customs, the military and the police will use the book as their course syllabus. I think the topic of canine olfaction is a timely one because of the diverse uses of the dog's sense of smell ranging from life-saving cancer detection to fun nose work. I hope that more dogs will have the chance to enrich their lives as working dogs, whereby they will be given a range of tasks for the use of their noses, for their own pleasure and ours.

Giving a dog the chance to perform work tasks and to make decisions is important for its well-being. I really hope that after reading this book you will arrive at plenty of new ideas to get your dog s into sniffing activities that will enrich their lives as well. We are working on the following projects:. We just submitted a scientific paper called "Dogs as scent mark sniffers: discrimination of native Eurasian beavers and invasive North American beavers.

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We will also soon start to train dogs to sniff out invasive beetles from Asia. As visual creatures, the sense of smell is difficult for us humans to understand and therefore to appreciate in the dog. I hope dog owners will understand more about this fascinating topic after reading the book. Look closely at how your dog uses its nose when you are out on your daily walk, or when doing some training. Many Arctic societies still rely on this animal for food, clothing and materials for shelter.

Male reindeer grow to 28 to 53 inches 70 to centimeters tall from hooves to shoulder, and around 5. Females are typically smaller, around 5. Males weigh to lbs. These animals are the only type of deer in which both the male and female reindeers grow antlers. These antlers fall off and regrow every year. A male's can grow up to 51 inches centimeters long and weigh up to 33 lbs. A female's antlers can grow up to 20 inches 50 cm , according to the San Diego Zoo.

The secret to Rudolph's rosy schnozzle is a dense network of blood vessels in his nose, scientists explained in a Live Science article. Reindeer, it seems, have 25 percent more capillaries carrying red, oxygen-rich blood in their nasal architecture than humans, said medical researchers in the Netherlands and the University of Rochester in New York. John Cullen of the University of Rochester said.


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The dense network of blood vessels in reindeer noses is also essential for regulating the animal's internal body temperature — like many mammals, reindeer don't sweat. Reindeer are found in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, northern Europe and northern Asia in tundra, mountains and woodland habitats. Their home ranges tend be as big as square miles square km , according to Encyclopedia Britannica.

Reindeer are very social creatures. They feed, travel and rest in groups called herds. These herds can include from 10 animals to a few hundred, according to the San Diego Zoo. In the spring, herds can get even bigger — from 50, to , members.

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The herds often travel south around 1, miles 1, km to 3, m 5, km to find food in the winter. Reindeer are herbivores, which means they only eat vegetation. Their diet can include herbs, ferns, mosses, grasses, shoots, fungi and leaves. On average, an adult reindeer eats around 9 to 18 lbs. In the winter, reindeer must dig through the snow to find food.